It’s been a while since I’ve written anything on Medium. In fact, I have been writing a series of blog posts about cryptography on my personal blog. Since these posts were math-heavy and had a lot of LaTeX equations, I didn’t bother to repost them onto Medium.

But I guess it’s time to come back to Medium every once a while and writing something about software engineering. So here I am and today let’s take a look at the technology that is the backbone of tomorrow’s cloud application infrastructure — the Unikernel paradigm, and Library OS (LibOS).

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Recently I was…

Last time, we went through the overview of what FHE is, the different stages towards FHE, and the brief history of it. I think at this point, we should be pretty comfortable with understanding what FHE is and its potential applications.

Although these topics might sound pretty archaic and distant, I claim that it’s actually not that hard to understand. In fact, with just simple knowledge in linear algebra, we can fully grasp the idea of the GSW FHE Scheme.

In this post, let’s together review some fundamental concepts of Lattice-based Crypto and the LWE Problem so we can build…

This post is mirrored on my personal blog: Function Decomposition.


Recently I have taken CS355 (Topics in Cryptography) at Stanford. This was a comprehensive course on advanced crypto topics.

Throughout the 3-month course, the instructors covered various topics that span the history of Cryptography, starting from One-way Functions, PRFs all the way to applied cryptosystems such as MPC, Zero-Knowledge, and PIR. This was really a great course to take, and I’ve surely learned a lot about modern cryptosystems.

In order to strengthen my understanding of these topics, I’ve decided to start a series of blog posts that (gently) introduces these…

For the past year, I having been taking classes at Stanford under Professor Dan Boneh and learning about different topics in the field of Cryptography. It has truly become an amazing journey. There are so many marvelous ideas in this field and a lot of them essentially reshaped the world.

Therefore I decided to start writing about what I have learned in a series of posts. This first post is actually a summary of an old paper that I recently read.

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Signature schemes are essential to our daily lives. Before computers have existed, we have been signing off papers and…

Cloud Computing at its finest.

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What is Serverless

I came across the term, Serverless Computing, a while ago when I was browsing Medium. The word didn’t make sense to me at that time because modern internet wouldn’t even exist without servers.

Recently, this word entered my mind again when I was reading about how to set up IoT infrastructures on AWS. The article talked about the usage of AWS Lambda, which is a Serverless platform. Then I began to understand that Serverless basically means offloading all the server hosting and setup work to infrastructure providers like AWS.

Imagine if we want to set…


I live in one of those large apartment complexes in San Francisco. The complex was recently built, and I am the first tenant in my current apartment. Walking down the hallway inside the complex, I always get this feeling of a modern, newly-furnished hotel.

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There was just one small thing that bothered me. I always set the thermostat to be ~78 degrees and on auto mode. However, despite that the screen shows that my room is at 78 degrees, I feel cold every once a while. Sometimes, I also get headaches because of the “coldness”.

At first, I thought it…

An accidental discovery took me to the frontier of research on computing.

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During Christmas Break

Due to the holiday code freeze, I took a week off for Christmas. Having nowhere to visit, I decided to stay at home peacefully this year. One day after Christmas Eve, I was bored and then I started to search for random things on Google — things such as “fastest PhD ever obtained”. So many smart people out there, I thought.

I’m pretty sure that was when I first came across with Stephen Wolfram’s name and his research.

Stephen Wolfram is a British-American computer scientist. He completed his…

How do we learn from TensorFlow and dream about the future of silicon valley?

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Last week while I was browsing Medium, I saw an interesting ML article that talked about AutoGraph, a tool for converting normal Python code into Graph code that TensorFlow uses for execution.

From my understanding, TensorFlow is built and optimized around computational graphs that model the flow of data. It would be very efficient if we can directly program in the graph language — but programming with graphs directly might not be as intuitive as typical programming languages such as Python. …

Photo by Markus Spiske on Unsplash

Let’s rethink about VPNs again…

As discussed previously, if we strip away all the monetary and technical details of the existing VPN services, down on the bottom the problem everyone tries to solve is simply figuring out a way to route network traffic in-and-out through the firewall. This seems like a problem that we can reduce with graphs. Let’s see if we can reduce the problem ourselves and maybe come up with an alternate way to surf the web.

Before we start thinking about solving it, we need to identify the characteristic differences between different stakeholders of this problem:

End Users (Circles)

  • End users are…

A friend from college asked me about how to access Instagram from China. I felt I have come across a giant hidden industry, after some research.

The Great Wall. Photo by Vincent Guth on Unsplash

Last week my college roommate sent me a message on WeChat, asking me if I knew any reliable VPN service providers so that he could check his Instagram feed during his stay in China.

My friend Ryan went back to Shenzhen after graduation. Despite his degree in Hotel Administration, he picked up his career in the Finance & Securities Industry. He has a solid daily routine: Every morning he goes to work, spend a…

Steven Yue

Software Engineer & Part-time student. I code and do photography. Instagram: stevenyue.

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